Who Faxes Anymore? Plus: Vote, Plebes!

Well, according to the 11th Circuit, at least one dental practice still does:
In 2003, Dr. John G. Sarris,1 owner of Defendant dental practice John G. Sarris, D.D.S., P.A., hired a marketing manager and gave him “free rein” to market the dental practice. Two years later, this marketing manager was solicited by Business to Business Solutions (“B2B”), which offered to send out mass fax advertisements. After receiving payment of $420.00 from Sarris, D.D.S.,2 B2B sent 7,085 successful transmissions of an advertisement promoting the dental practice. Among these was the December 13, 2005 transmission to Plaintiff Palm Beach Golf, a golf equipment store. Despite its successful transmission to Plaintiff, no employee of Palm Beach Golf could recall actually seeing or printing the fax advertisement. Rather, the evidence that the advertisement was transmitted by B2B, and received by Palm Beach Golf, is the Expert Report, which confirms the successful fax transmission, taking one minute of connection time, made to Plaintiff’s fax machine.

In granting summary judgment for Defendant, the District Court held that Palm Beach Golf could only prevail under the TCPA on a theory of vicarious liability. That is, the District Court held that Sarris, D.D.S. was liable, if at all, only for the acts of its marketing manager, and then only if it were established that he was an employee acting within the scope of his employment. The District Court reached this conclusion by interpreting a Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) declaratory ruling to mean that “a party is not directly liable for a TCPA violation unless it actually transmits a fax, but the party may be vicariously liable under federal common law principles of agency for the actions of a [third party].” In addition, the District Court determined that, because Palm Beach Golf had failed to plead a theory of vicarious liability in its complaint, a heightened pleading requirement under Florida law, its claim was defective.

Despite reaching the merits of Palm Beach Golf’s TCPA claim, the District Court further held that Palm Beach Golf lacked Article III standing, because it was unable to demonstrate that it had suffered an injury in fact. The District Court concluded that “nowhere in the statute does Congress express an intent to circumvent the requirement that a plaintiff have Article III case-or-controversy standing to bring a claim, which requires that the plaintiff demonstrate a distinct and palpable injury to himself.” Because there was no evidence that any employee of Plaintiff’s saw or printed the transmitted fax, the District Court concluded that Palm Beach Golf was unable to demonstrate that it had suffered a sufficiently concrete injury to establish standing under Article III.
Hmm, that's a pretty strict and narrow reading of a statute designed to help consumers fight unwanted spam faxes (to the extent anyone even uses them anymore).

What did the 11th say about the standing question?
Palm Beach Golf insists that it was error for the District Court to hold that, because it failed to prove that the fax was printed or seen, it lacked Article III standing. For Plaintiff, the specific injury targeted by the TCPA is the sending of the fax and resulting occupation of the recipient’s telephone line and fax machine, not that the fax was actually printed or read. We agree.....TCPA provides standing under this theory because it is a “bounty” statute, specifically providing a prevailing plaintiff $500 in statutory damages for each unlawful fax sent, as well as treble damages under certain circumstances for intentional violations of the statute.
That seems like a no-brainer.

What about the merits of the vicarious liability sj argument?
Nonetheless, we find that there is sufficient record evidence to support having a jury decide whether the fax was sent on behalf of Defendant. First, there is record evidence that Sarris, D.D.S. hired a marketing manager to market its dental practice and gave him “free rein” to do so. Next, the record demonstrates that Defendant’s marketing manager contracted with B2B to initiate a fax advertisement campaign on behalf of the dental practice. Further, the record shows that, on December 13, 2005, after receiving payment of $420.00 from Defendant, B2B transmitted an unsolicited fax advertisement promoting Sarris, D.D.S.’s services to Palm Beach Golf, which occupied Plaintiff’s fax machine for one minute. While there is contrary equivocal evidence that the final draft of the advertisement used may not have been approved by Defendant, under the summary judgment standard, the question of on whose behalf the fax advertisement was sent is a question to be decided by a jury.
Come on Judge W -- "let the echo jury decide if I was right or wrong."

Did I mention you should vote?

Thanks to all the lawyers and judges volunteering their time, money and energy to see that voters get out to the polls and make informed decisions on matters that directly affect all of us.


  1. I am an American man, and I have decided to boycott American women. In a nutshell, American women are the most likely to cheat on you, to divorce you, to get fat, to steal half of your money in the divorce courts, don’t know how to cook or clean, don’t want to have children, etc. Therefore, what intelligent man would want to get involved with American women?

    American women are generally immature, selfish, extremely arrogant and self-centered, mentally unstable, irresponsible, and highly unchaste. The behavior of most American women is utterly disgusting, to say the least.

    This blog is my attempt to explain why I feel American women are inferior to foreign women (non-American women), and why American men should boycott American women, and date/marry only foreign (non-American) women.



  2. Sounds like an ad for my team. But I love women! If they aren't treating you right, maybe it's because you're not treating them right.

  3. 168 all the way baby!

  4. Hey, can I smoke weed now?

  5. Everything is legal so long as you don't get caught.


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